THERAPEUTIKON
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Coronavirus

 

Tijd voor Paniek? Nee

Tijd voor zorg? Ja

 

 

Dagelijks worden we bestookt met informatie . . .

Op deze pagina proberen we deels om wetenschappelijke informatie bij elkaar te brengen en tegelijk informatie over preventie te verzamelen.

 

Het is niet eenvoudig om als burger toegang te krijgen tot wetenschappelijke bronnen, waartoe de deskundigen wél toegang hebben. Het is niet enkel een zoektocht door alle werelden van informatie, maar ook omdat deze artikelen meestal achter een (financieel) slot opgeborgen zitten.

Omdat er op dit moment nog geen uitzicht is op een vaccin is het nu belangrijk om vooral ons immuunsysteem te versterken en te onderhouden. Gezonde mensen worden naar alle waarschijnlijkheid niet ziek van een besmetting met dit virus!!!

Alle zaken die bij het gezonde verstand horen hoeven we hier toch niet te verzamelen?! Zoek de ziekte-brandhaarden niet op! etc.

 

NIEUW!

 

Unieke vondst in Erasmus MC: antilichaam tegen corona

A human monoclonal 1 antibody

blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection

Chunyan WangWentao LiDubravka DrabekNisreen M.A. Okba

Rien van HaperenAlbert D.M.E. OsterhausFrank J.M. van Kuppeveld

Bart L. HaagmansFrank GrosveldBerend-Jan Bosch

 

 

 

RIVM updates:

Voor de officiële informatie in Nederland: https://www.rivm.nl/coronavirus

Informatie voor professionals: https://lci.rivm.nl/richtlijnen/covid-19

 

 

Geneesmiddelen tegen het corona-virus zijn er niet; voor preventie is er ook nog geen vaccin. Gelukkig kunnen de mogelijk dodelijke gevolgen van deze besmetting in de ziekenhuizen in de meeste gevallen wél behandeld worden.

Een goede conditie van lichaam en geest helpt ons lijf om tijdig antistoffen op te bouwen tegen het virus en zo erger te voorkomen. Want voorkomen is beter dan genezen!

Een aantal dingen weten we wel en dat is de kennis van (natuurlijke) middelen die het immuunsysteem versterken of die de ontwikkeling van het virus kunnen belemmeren.

Een aantal van deze middelen vind u hier: download deze (klik hieronder)

Corona-virus Preparedness Checklist

 

 

Clinical Trials:

http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx?SearchTermStat=117&ReturnUrl=~/ListBy.aspx?TypeListing=0

 

 

Wetenschappelijke artikelen via PubMed:

(2020) The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health — The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China.pdf

(2020) Outbreak of Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan China.pdf

(2019) Coronaviruses-genome structure, replication, andpathogenesis.pdf

(2019) Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novelcoronavirus in Wuhan, China.pdf

(2019) A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019.pdf

(2019) A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019.pdf

(2018) Middle East respiratory syndrome-what we learned from the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea-Korean J Intern Med.pdf

(2018) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus-risk factors and determinants of primary, household, and nosocomialtransmission-Hui2018.pdf

(2017) Outbreak of Middle East respiratory-Aleanizy2017.pdf

(2017) High reproduction number of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus innosocomial outbreaks-Mathematical modelling in Saudi Arabia and South Korea  -Choi2017.pdf

(2017) Comparative epidemiology of Middle East respiratoryn syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia and South Korea-Chen2017.pdf

(2017) Case characteristics among Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak and non-outbreak cases in Saudi Arabia from 2012 to 2015-Alhamlan2017.pdf

(2015) MERS coronavirus-diagnostics,epidemiology and transmission-Mackay2015.pdf

(2013) Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirusdisease from Saudi Arabia-Assiri2013.pdf

 

Wat wordt er op dit moment genoemd voor preventie?

Vanuit de zorg horen we vooral dat men er klaar voor is om ziektegevallen in isolatie onder te brengen. Feit is dat deze 'ziektegevallen' niet geïsoleerd ZIJN totdat zij geïsoleerd WORDEN! Ook deze mensen zijn door iemand besmet. De 'besmetters' lopen dan vaak toch nog gewoon door, misschien hoestend en proestend, maar misschien dat zij zelf er geen enkele aanwijzing voor hebben dat zij drager zijn van het coronavirus. En misschien zijn 'zij' wel 'wij'!

 

Wat kan ik op dit moment zelf doen?

Vanuit vooral de complementaire gezondheidszorg, zoals de orthomoleculaire geneeskunde, komen enkele zaken naar voren waar het gaat om preventie.

Het zijn de bekende zaken, de gezonde levensstijl, zoals gezond eten, probeer zonlicht te vangen of vervanging daarvan in de winter (infrarood-cabine; daglichtlamp) etc. en daarnaast de bekende zaken zoals:

Vitamines (en ja, dan nu zeker hoger dan de minimaal dagelijks aanbevolen 'IU'-s of miligrammen! Zie het artikel van Dr. Andrew W. Saul - ondersteund met per middel verschillende artikelen: Vitamin C Protects Against Coronavirus, in: Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Jan 26, 2020, http://orthomolecular.activehosted.com/index.php?action=social&chash=9b8619251a19057cff70779273e95aa6.134&s=e79b8b3a12e87cb45dd9b37d191c00a7

Saul concludeert in dit artikel:

Vitamin C: 3,000 milligrams (or more) daily, in divided doses.

Vitamin D3: 2,000 International Units daily. (Start with 5,000 IU/day for two weeks, then reduce to 2,000)

Magnesium: 400 mg daily (in citrate, malate, chelate, or chloride form)

Zinc: 20 mg daily

Selenium: 100 mcg (micrograms) daily

Vitamin C, Vitamin D, magnesium, zinc, and selenium have been shown to strengthen the immune system against viruses.

 

Verder valt te denken aan:

Cistus Incanus (ssp tauricus)
Dit geldt dan vooral mensen met onderliggende longproblemen. Het nieuwe coronavirus veroorzaakt een longontsteking die diep in de longen woedt.
Voor sommigen is dat fataal, omdat er onvoldoende ventilatie is en ook onvoldoende kracht om de ademhaling zo diep te maken dat opgehoest kan worden c.q. met antibiotica behandeld kan worden. Overigens: tegen het virus zélf heeft antibiotica natuurlijk geen functie!

Cistus is onderzocht door Duitse universiteiten. Het bevat een zeer hoog polyphenolen gehalte. Polyphenolen verkleven de virussen zodat ze niet aan de celwand kunnen blijven hangen. 
Het is dus zaak om in de bloedbaan een titer te hebben. Die bereik je als volgt: neem bij het begin 5 capsules Cistus, dan gedurende de eerste dag elk uur 2, dan de daarop volgende dagen/weken elke dag 3 x 1 of 2. 
Cistus heeft geen negatieve werking, interacteert niet met andere medicatie. 

 

Vanuit de USA kwam ik een advies dat ook helpend zou kunnen blijken: "Because this new disease is viral, antibiotics would not be a viable option for treatment. However, nebulizing silver may be an effective remedy, as well as essential oils and chlorine dioxide." Of hier colloïdaal zilver wordt bedoeld weet ik niet. Colloïdaal zilver wordt zeker antivirale eigenschappen toegekend, net als bepaalde essentiële oliën. Een nadere uitwerking van deze wel heel summiere informatie zou wel gewenst zijn. Die hoop ik nog tegen te komen!

 

En om te beginnen natuurlijk het anti-virale L-lysine nemen. Een van de voor de mens essentiële aminozuren, die we op kwetsbare momenten te kort komen. Een pot L-lysine kost nagenoeg niks en bij omkomende griepachtige klachten raad ik dit in beginsel aan iedereen graag aan!

 

AANVULLENDE INFORMATIE d.d. 2020 - 1 - 30

 

Red Algae Griffithsin

Can Herbal medicines fight Wuhan Coronavirus?

in: Plant Medicine Research, Case Adams, PhD. (jan 2020)

https://plantmedicines.org/plant-medicines-fight-wuhan-coronavirus/

Substance

Disease

 

Lectins Fight Viruses, Low Levels Linked to Diseases

in: Plant Medicine Research, Case Adams, PhD. (jan. 2020)

https://plantmedicines.org/antiviral-plant-lectins-viruses/

 

Licorice Roots fights MERS and SARS infections

in: Plant Medicine Research, Case Adams, PhD. (2014)

https://plantmedicines.org/licorice-mers-sars/

 

References

(verzameld door Case Adams)

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Cohen J, Normile D. New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarmScience. 2020 Jan 17;367(6475):234-235. doi: 10.1126/science.367.6475.234.

Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MUG, Khan K. Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from ChinaJ Travel Med. 2020 Jan 27. pii: taaa011. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa011.

Barre A, Simplicien M, Benoist H, Van Damme EJM, Rougé P. Mannose-Specific Lectins from Marine Algae: Diverse Structural Scaffolds Associated to Common Virucidal and Anti-Cancer Properties. Mar Drugs. 2019 Jul 26;17(8). pii: E440. doi: 10.3390/md17080440.

Alam A, Jiang L, Kittleson GA, Steadman KD, Nandi S, Fuqua JL, Palmer KE, Tusé D, McDonald KA. Technoeconomic Modeling of Plant-Based Griffithsin ManufacturingFront Bioeng Biotechnol. 2018 Jul 24;6:102. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2018.00102.

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Hurst H, Palmer KE. Pharmacokinetics of the Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin Administered by Different Routes Indicates Multiple Potential Uses. Viruses. 2016 Dec 17;8(12). pii: E331. doi: 10.3390/v8120331.

Baize S, Leroy EM, Georges-Courbot MC, Capron M, Lansoud-Soukate J, Debré P, Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Georges AJ. Defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in Ebola virus-infected patients. Nat Med. 1999 Apr;5(4):423-6.

Leroy EM, Baize S, Volchkov VE, Fisher-Hoch SP, Georges-Courbot MC, Lansoud-Soukate J, Capron M, Debré P, McCormick JB, Georges AJ. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Lancet. 2000 Jun 24;355(9222):2210-5.

Albert RK, Connett J, Curtis JL, Martinez FJ, Han MK, Lazarus SC, Woodruff PG. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2012;7:767-77. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S33714.

Ribeiro LZ, Tripp RA, Rossi LM, Palma PV, Yokosawa J, Mantese OC, Oliveira TF, Nepomuceno LL, Queiróz DA. Serum mannose-binding lectin levels are linked with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. J Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar;28(2):166-73.

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Foreman O, Cambon A, Brock G, Montefiori DC, Vojdani F, McCormick AA, O'Keefe BR, Palmer KE. Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):120-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01407-13.

Takebe Y, Saucedo CJ, Lund G, Uenishi R, Hase S, Tsuchiura T, Kneteman N, Ramessar K, Tyrrell DL, Shirakura M, Wakita T, McMahon JB, O'Keefe BR. Antiviral lectins from red and blue-green algae show potent in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. PLoS One. 2013 May 21;8(5):e64449. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064449.

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Vorup-Jensen T, Sørensen ES, Jensen UB, Schwaeble W, Kawasaki T, Ma Y, Uemura K, Wakamiya N, Suzuki Y, Jensen TG, Takahashi K, Ezekowitz RA, Thiel S, Jensenius JC. Recombinant expression of human mannan-binding lectinInt Immunopharmacol. 2001 Apr;1(4):677-87.

Singh RS, Thakur SR, Bansal P. Algal lectins as promising biomolecules for biomedical research. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2013 Jul 16.

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, Balzarini J, Van Ranst M. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res. 2007 Sep;75(3):179-87.

Falzarano D, de Wit E, Rasmussen AL, Feldmann F, Okumura A, Scott DP, Brining D, Bushmaker T, Martellaro C, Baseler L, Benecke AG, Katze MG, Munster VJ, Feldmann H. Treatment with interferon-α2b and ribavirin improves outcome in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus macaques. Nat Med. 2013 Oct;19(10):1313-7. doi: 10.1038/nm.3362.

Pu JY, He L, Wu SY, Zhang P, Huang X. Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013 Nov;29(6):673-9.

Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, Bielenberg J. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza speciesPhytother Res. 2008 Feb;22(2):141-8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2295

Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet. 2003 Jun 14;361(9374):2045-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13615-X

Feng Yeh C, Wang KC, Chiang LC, Shieh DE, Yen MH, San Chang J. Water extract of licorice had anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 9;148(2):466-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.040.

Gao DN, Zhang Y, Ren YB, Kang J, Jiang L, Feng Z, Qu YN, Qi QH, Meng X. Relationship of Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels with the Development of Sepsis: a Meta-analysis. Inflammation. 2014 Oct 17.

Chen M, Deng J, Su C, Li J, Wang M, Abuaku BK, Hu S, Tan H, Wen SW. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 10. pii: S1201-9712(14)01626-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.08.010.

Hornum M, Bay JT, Clausen P, Melchior Hansen J, Mathiesen ER, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Garred P. High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in uraemic patients. BMC Nephrol. 2014 Oct 4;15(1):162. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-162.

Gravina LP, Crespo C, Giugno H, Sen L, Chertkoff L, Mangano A, Castaños C. Mannose-binding lectin gene modifier of cystic fibrosis phenotype in Argentinean pediatric patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Aug 29. pii: S1569-1993(14)00173-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.07.012

Swale A, Miyajima F, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Roberts P, Little M, Beeching NJ, Beadsworth MB, Liloglou T, Pirmohamed M. Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Concentration, but Not Genotype, Is Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 15;59(10):1429-36. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu666.

Nedovic B, Posteraro B, Leoncini E, Ruggeri A, Amore R, Sanguinetti M, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Mannose-binding lectin codon 54 gene polymorphism and vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:738298. doi: 10.1155/2014/738298.

Miyakawa T, Hatano K, Miyauchi Y, Suwa Y, Sawano Y, Tanokura M. A secreted protein with plant-specific cysteine-rich motif functions as a mannose-binding lectin that exhibits antifungal activity. Plant Physiol. 2014 Oct;166(2):766-78. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.242636.

Auriti C, Prencipe G, Caravale B, Coletti MF, Ronchetti MP, Piersigilli F, Azzari C, Di Ciommo VM. MBL2 gene polymorphisms increase the risk of adverse neurological outcome in preterm infants: a preliminary prospective study. Pediatr Res. 2014 Aug 13. doi: 10.1038/pr.2014.118.

Luo J, Xu F, Lu GJ, Lin HC, Feng ZC. Low mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and MBL genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk of neonatal sepsis: An updated meta-analysis. Early Hum Dev. 2014 Oct;90(10):557-64. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.07.007.

Ibernon M, Moreso F, O'Valle F, Grinyo JM, Moral RG, Seron D. Low serum mannose-binding lectin levels are associated with inflammation and apoptosis in early surveillance allograft biopsies. Transpl Immunol. 2014 Sep;31(3):152-6. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2014.07.001.

Justice JM, Sleasman JW, Lanza DC. Recalcitrant Rhinosinusitis, Innate Immunity, and Mannose-Binding Lectin. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014 Jul 25. pii: 0003489414543680.

Song GG, Bae SC, Seo YH, Kim JH, Choi SJ, Ji JD, Lee YH. Meta-analysis of functional MBL polymorphisms. Associations with rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome. Z Rheumatol. 2014 Sep;73(7):657-64. doi: 10.1007/s00393-014-1408-x.

Swierzko AS, Szala A, Sawicki S, Szemraj J, Sniadecki M, Sokolowska A, Kaluzynski A, Wydra D, Cedzynski M. Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in women with malignant and benign ovarian tumours. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014 Nov;63(11):1129-40. doi: 10.1007/s00262-014-1579-y.

Liu XH, Li Q, Zhang P, Su Y, Zhang XR, Sun Q. Serum mannose-binding lectin and C-reactive protein are potential biomarkers for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014 Sep;18(9):630-5. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2014.0038.

Sildorf SM, Eising S, Hougaard DM, Mortensen HB, Skogstrand K, Pociot F, Johannesen J, Svensson J. Differences in MBL levels between juvenile patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings. Mol Immunol. 2014 Nov;62(1):71-6. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.06.001.

Herrera-Ramos E, López-Rodríguez M, Ruíz-Hernández JJ, Horcajada JP, Borderías L, Lerma E, Blanquer J, Pérez-González MC, García-Laorden MI, Florido Y, Mas-Bosch V, Montero M, Ferrer JM, Sorlí L, Vilaplana C, Rajas O, Briones M, Aspa J, López-Granados E, Solé-Violán J, de Castro FR, Rodríguez-Gallego C. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection. Crit Care. 2014 Jun 20;18(3):R127. doi: 10.1186/cc13934.

Tran HB, Ahern J, Hodge G, Holt P, Dean MM, Reynolds PN, Hodge S. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 5;9(6):e98571. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098571. eCollection 2014.

Orsatti CL, Nahás EA, Nahas-Neto J, Orsatti FL, Linhares IM, Witkin SS. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Mol Immunol. 2014 Sep;61(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.05.003.

Longhi L, Orsini F, De Blasio D, Fumagalli S, Ortolano F, Locatelli M, Stocchetti N, De Simoni MG. Mannose-binding lectin is expressed after clinical and experimental traumatic brain injury and its deletion is protective. Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;42(8):1910-8. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000399

Regente M, Taveira GB, Pinedo M, Elizalde MM, Ticchi AJ, Diz MS, Carvalho AO, de la Canal L, Gomes VM. A sunflower lectin with antifungal properties and putative medical mycology applications. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jul;69(1):88-95. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0558-z.

Nonaka M, Imaeda H, Matsumoto S, Yong Ma B, Kawasaki N, Mekata E, Andoh A, Saito Y, Tani T, Fujiyama Y, Kawasaki T. Mannan-binding protein, a C-type serum lectin, recognizes primary colorectal carcinomas through tumor-associated Lewis glycans. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1;192(3):1294-301. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203023.

van der Meer FJ, de Haan CA, Schuurman NM, Haijema BJ, Verheije MH, Bosch BJ, Balzarini J, Egberink HF. The carbohydrate-binding plant lectins and the non-peptidic antibiotic pradimicin A target the glycans of the coronavirus envelope glycoproteins. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Oct;60(4):741-9.

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, Balzarini J, Van Ranst M. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res. 2007 Sep;75(3):179-87.

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, Xing F, Liu J, Yip CC, Poon RW, Tsoi HW, Lo SK, Chan KH, Poon VK, Chan WM, Ip JD, Cai JP, Cheng VC, Chen H, Hui CK, Yuen KY. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020 Jan 24. pii: S0140-6736(20)30154-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9.

Cohen J, Normile D. New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarmScience. 2020 Jan 17;367(6475):234-235. doi: 10.1126/science.367.6475.234.

Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MUG, Khan K. Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from ChinaJ Travel Med. 2020 Jan 27. pii: taaa011. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa011.

Barre A, Simplicien M, Benoist H, Van Damme EJM, Rougé P. Mannose-Specific Lectins from Marine Algae: Diverse Structural Scaffolds Associated to Common Virucidal and Anti-Cancer Properties. Mar Drugs. 2019 Jul 26;17(8). pii: E440. doi: 10.3390/md17080440.

Alam A, Jiang L, Kittleson GA, Steadman KD, Nandi S, Fuqua JL, Palmer KE, Tusé D, McDonald KA. Technoeconomic Modeling of Plant-Based Griffithsin ManufacturingFront Bioeng Biotechnol. 2018 Jul 24;6:102. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2018.00102.

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Hurst H, Palmer KE. Pharmacokinetics of the Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin Administered by Different Routes Indicates Multiple Potential Uses. Viruses. 2016 Dec 17;8(12). pii: E331. doi: 10.3390/v8120331.

Baize S, Leroy EM, Georges-Courbot MC, Capron M, Lansoud-Soukate J, Debré P, Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Georges AJ. Defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in Ebola virus-infected patients. Nat Med. 1999 Apr;5(4):423-6.

Leroy EM, Baize S, Volchkov VE, Fisher-Hoch SP, Georges-Courbot MC, Lansoud-Soukate J, Capron M, Debré P, McCormick JB, Georges AJ. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Lancet. 2000 Jun 24;355(9222):2210-5.

Albert RK, Connett J, Curtis JL, Martinez FJ, Han MK, Lazarus SC, Woodruff PG. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2012;7:767-77. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S33714.

Ribeiro LZ, Tripp RA, Rossi LM, Palma PV, Yokosawa J, Mantese OC, Oliveira TF, Nepomuceno LL, Queiróz DA. Serum mannose-binding lectin levels are linked with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. J Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar;28(2):166-73.

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Foreman O, Cambon A, Brock G, Montefiori DC, Vojdani F, McCormick AA, O'Keefe BR, Palmer KE. Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):120-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01407-13.

Takebe Y, Saucedo CJ, Lund G, Uenishi R, Hase S, Tsuchiura T, Kneteman N, Ramessar K, Tyrrell DL, Shirakura M, Wakita T, McMahon JB, O'Keefe BR. Antiviral lectins from red and blue-green algae show potent in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. PLoS One. 2013 May 21;8(5):e64449. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064449.

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Falzarano D, de Wit E, Rasmussen AL, Feldmann F, Okumura A, Scott DP, Brining D, Bushmaker T, Martellaro C, Baseler L, Benecke AG, Katze MG, Munster VJ, Feldmann H. Treatment with interferon-α2b and ribavirin improves outcome in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus macaques. Nat Med. 2013 Oct;19(10):1313-7. doi: 10.1038/nm.3362.

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Gao DN, Zhang Y, Ren YB, Kang J, Jiang L, Feng Z, Qu YN, Qi QH, Meng X. Relationship of Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels with the Development of Sepsis: a Meta-analysis. Inflammation. 2014 Oct 17.

Chen M, Deng J, Su C, Li J, Wang M, Abuaku BK, Hu S, Tan H, Wen SW. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 10. pii: S1201-9712(14)01626-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.08.010.

Hornum M, Bay JT, Clausen P, Melchior Hansen J, Mathiesen ER, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Garred P. High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in uraemic patients. BMC Nephrol. 2014 Oct 4;15(1):162. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-162.

Gravina LP, Crespo C, Giugno H, Sen L, Chertkoff L, Mangano A, Castaños C. Mannose-binding lectin gene modifier of cystic fibrosis phenotype in Argentinean pediatric patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Aug 29. pii: S1569-1993(14)00173-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.07.012

Swale A, Miyajima F, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Roberts P, Little M, Beeching NJ, Beadsworth MB, Liloglou T, Pirmohamed M. Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Concentration, but Not Genotype, Is Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 15;59(10):1429-36. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu666.

Nedovic B, Posteraro B, Leoncini E, Ruggeri A, Amore R, Sanguinetti M, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Mannose-binding lectin codon 54 gene polymorphism and vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:738298. doi: 10.1155/2014/738298.

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Herrera-Ramos E, López-Rodríguez M, Ruíz-Hernández JJ, Horcajada JP, Borderías L, Lerma E, Blanquer J, Pérez-González MC, García-Laorden MI, Florido Y, Mas-Bosch V, Montero M, Ferrer JM, Sorlí L, Vilaplana C, Rajas O, Briones M, Aspa J, López-Granados E, Solé-Violán J, de Castro FR, Rodríguez-Gallego C. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection. Crit Care. 2014 Jun 20;18(3):R127. doi: 10.1186/cc13934.

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Orsatti CL, Nahás EA, Nahas-Neto J, Orsatti FL, Linhares IM, Witkin SS. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Mol Immunol. 2014 Sep;61(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.05.003.

Longhi L, Orsini F, De Blasio D, Fumagalli S, Ortolano F, Locatelli M, Stocchetti N, De Simoni MG. Mannose-binding lectin is expressed after clinical and experimental traumatic brain injury and its deletion is protective. Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;42(8):1910-8. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000399

Regente M, Taveira GB, Pinedo M, Elizalde MM, Ticchi AJ, Diz MS, Carvalho AO, de la Canal L, Gomes VM. A sunflower lectin with antifungal properties and putative medical mycology applications. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jul;69(1):88-95. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0558-z.

Nonaka M, Imaeda H, Matsumoto S, Yong Ma B, Kawasaki N, Mekata E, Andoh A, Saito Y, Tani T, Fujiyama Y, Kawasaki T. Mannan-binding protein, a C-type serum lectin, recognizes primary colorectal carcinomas through tumor-associated Lewis glycans. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1;192(3):1294-301. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203023.

van der Meer FJ, de Haan CA, Schuurman NM, Haijema BJ, Verheije MH, Bosch BJ, Balzarini J, Egberink HF. The carbohydrate-binding plant lectins and the non-peptidic antibiotic pradimicin A target the glycans of the coronavirus envelope glycoproteins. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Oct;60(4):741-9.

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, Balzarini J, Van Ranst M. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res. 2007 Sep;75(3):179-87.

 

 

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